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|World War I|
July 28, 1914 – November 11, 1918
Europe, the Pacific, the Atlantic, Southeast Asia, the Mediterranean and Africa
Militaries of the Allied Nations
Militaries of the Central Powers
22,477,500 KIA, WIA or MIA
16,403,000 KIA, WIA or MIA
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War and the Great War) was a global conflict lasting from 1914 to 1918, involving most of the world's nations including all of the great powers, eventually forming two opposing military alliances, the Allies and the Central Powers. Prior to World War II, the First World War was seen as one of the most devastating conflict in world history as over nine million combatants and seven million civilians died as a result of the war, due to the belligerents' technological and industrial sophistication, and the tactical stalemate caused by grueling trench warfare. As such, many people at the time dubbed the conflict as "the war to end all wars". While warfare would continue, the aftermath of World War I paved the way for both political and military change.
During the 19th century, the major European powers went through great lengths to maintain a balance of power, which resulted in the existence of both political and military alliances.
European Theater Edit
Situation in Europe before the war was uneasy. Russia and Austria-Hungary wanted to take control over Balkans. Germany planned to make their empire stronger. France decided to take revenge on Germans for humilating act of unification of Germany in Paris in 1871. Great Britain controlled 25% of world. European countries fought for colonies in Africa and Asia. A trigger for a war was assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo at 28 June 1914, by Serbian nationalist, Gavrilo Princip. World War I became the war between greatest empires in the world.
Adriatic Campaign was one of the longest campaigns of WWI. It was fought between Italian Regia Marina (with British, French and American support) and Austro-Hungarian Navy (with the support of Kaiserliche Marine. This campaign was won by allied forces, however, Entente gained heavy casualities, caused mainly by Austrian submarines.
See also: Gotha Raids on London (Codex Entry)
As an act of all-out war, German Air Force performed many bombing raids on London. The main target was to spread chaos and terror between Brits. At the beginning, Germans were using Zeppelins, but in 1917 they started replacing airships with better and harder to hit Gotha G.IV bombers.
Battle of Monte Grappa was series of three battles, fought between Italy and Austria-Hungary. The main reason of these battles was plan to flank Italian Piave front. First battle occured in 1917 and it brought Austrian summer offensive to a halt. Next two battles were fought in 1918 and they resulted the Italian victory.
20 November - 7 December 1917
In 1917, British command planned to perform a surprise attack on the German lines near Cambrai in France. Brits sent over 300 Mark IV and Mark V tanks to push through German positions. After rushing Imperial trenches and crossing Bourlon Woods, Entente forces broke to Cambrai. The aftermath of battle is controversial, due to indecisive skirmishes and heavy casualities. Battle of Cambrai was the first and the greatest tank battle in World War I.
21 March - 5 April 1918
At the end of WWI, the stalemate got broken. In 1918, Germans performed a Hundred-days offensive, also known as Kaiserschlacht (The Emperor's Battle in German). German Army, led by Erich Ludendorff, performed a quick attack on Mount Saint Quentin, near Travecy. Due to result of The Second Battle of the Somme, Imperial forces took new territory and marched to Amiens.
8 - 12 August 1918
Amiens was important industrial and railway facility. After success in battle of Mt. St. Quentin, Germans decided to rush this French city and take control over facilities. With the support of A7V tanks, Imperial soldiers were breaking through the city, but they got stopped by British, French and American forces.
26 September - 11 November 1918
The Meuse-Argonne offensive was part of 1918 Allied offensive, performed by American and French forces.
- Battle of Cháteau de Chantilly - During World War I many Cháteaus (castles) got caught by Germans and used by high-ranked officers as residences. One of these buildings was Cháteau de Chantilly, where a short battle between Germans and Americans was fought.
- Argonne Forest - During the second phase of offensive, American troops has broken through Hindenburg Line and went into Argonne Forest. It was the labirynth of German trenches, bunkers and MG nests. Many young Americans died, but finally the battle resulted in US victory. Due to heavy casualities, this battle is also known as The Hell of Argonne.
Middle Eastern Theater Edit
The main reason of the conflict between British and Ottoman Empires was domination over Suez Canal and Middle-Eastern oilfields, which were the most important strategic objects in the region, allowing their armies to transport troops and extract oil, which was essential for modern armies.
6-8 September 1914
It was the first battle in the Middle East. British and Indian troops landed in Al-Faw Cape to take control over Fao Fortress. With the support of Dreadnoughts and artillery, British troops captured the fort and took 300 prisoners.
26 January - 4 February 1915
At the beginning of 1915, the German-led Ottoman Army performed the attack on Suez Canal. Ottoman soldiers crossed the Sinai Peninsula and started the raid, but their invasion failed, due to strongly held defences.
25 April 1915 - 9 January 1916
British plan was to perform a massive invasion on the Ottoman Empire. Firstly, Brits had to capture a Gallipoli Peninsula and go to Constantinopole. Gallipoli battle was the greatest landing operation of World War I. The naval attack never repelled. Due to heavy casualities on both sides, the conflict was withdrawn to Egypt. Battle of Gallipoli was the first moment, when Australians fought under their own flag.
28 January 1915 - 30 October 1918
After unsuccesful raid on Suez Canal, Ottoman forces were pushed into Sinai Desert. Many battles occured, such as battles of Gaza, Romani and Maghdaba. In 1918 British Empire finally beat Ottoman Empire and won on Middle-Eastern front.